Date: 2018-02-20 14:29
Focusing more on specific cultural and historical parameters the authors note that what was Jewish in the time of Augustus was very different from what was Jewish in the time of Charlemagne. By the time of Charlemagne the Judaism of the Pharisees had marginalized other groups (excepting to some extent the Karaites). In the time of Augustus Jews were divided between different sects and persuasions, and there was a welter of diversity. Additionally, in the marketplace of Roman religion Jews were a moderately entrepreneurial group. The dynasty of Herod himself was of convert origin. There was a wide spectrum of Jewish religious practice and belief, from the near monastic isolation of the Essenes, to the engaged but separatist Pharisees, and finally to the wide range of more syncretistic practices which fall under the rubric of 8775 Hellenistic Judaism. 8776 Many scholars assert that it was from the last sector which Christianity finally arose as a Jewish sect, and that Christianity eventually absorbed all the other forms of Hellenistic Judaism. Judaism of the Pharisees, which became Rabbinical Judaism, and more recently Judaism qua Judaism, was shaped in large part by having to accommodate and placate the dominant Christian and Islamic religious cultures in which it was integrated by the early medieval period. Conversion to Judaism from Christianity or Islam was often a capital crime (though conversion from Christianity to Judaism was not forbidden in Muslim lands, while presumably conversion from Islam to Judaism in Christian lands would not have been, though few Muslims lived in Christian lands). So after 555 . it seems that what may have occurred was that a Jewish Diaspora characterized by geographically determined genetic diversity, despite some common original Levantine origin, was genetically isolated from surrounding populations. This explains why there seems relatively *censored* influx of Slavic genes into the Ashkenazim despite their long sojourn within Poland-Lithuania and later the Russian Empire. In contrast, the Roman Jewish community was already large in the days of Julius Caesar, and presumably intermarried with the urban proletariat of diverse an ironic twist these data suggest that modern Jews, in particular the Ashkenazim, but to a lesser extent the Sephardim as well, share common ancestry with gentile Europeans due to the unconstrained character of the pagan Greco-Roman world which Jews were to a great extent strident critics of. Contra Tertullian Athens had much to do with Jerusalem.
I found this to be an interesting post. I 8767 m sure as you read my name you might have pictured me as a white Caucasian girl. I 8767 m not. I 8767 m Korean by descent, American by adoption. :) My dad was in the military for 77 years. My mom and Dad and four brothers are all white Caucasians. Part of my *censored*hood was spent in Hawaii, which is part of the United States of America, but in some ways, it might as well be a foreign land, as there are many Asians who live over there. Growing up there, I never really thought about the issue of 8775 color. 8776 I always knew I was adopted, but I knew I wa loved y my Mom and Dad. Growing up in a multicultural state, I never experienced ignorance or racism or prejudice. Maybe it 8767 s because I looked like a lot of others who lived I moved to the mainland United States, it was culture shock for me totally..it 8767 s not that I encountered prejudice, persay, but people didn 8767 t seem as friendly and open and welcoming as they 8767 d been in Hawaii..people seemed to stick to 8775 their own kind, 8776 and even some comments made in the church, weren 8767 t appearing to be racist or prejudiced, yet still seemed ignorant. I think as Christians these days, it 8767 s easy for us to forget that the Gospel of Christ is for everyone- regardless of color, regardless of race, regardless of background, and we become comfortable. Not only that, we 8767 re held back by cultural prejudices, and ways of thinking that have been passed down to us by even seeming harmless, but ignorant comments our ancestors have made, and fears that are passed from generation to generation. I would that all Christians had had the kind of *censored*hood and exposure to different cultures as I have, but not all have had the privilege or the responsibility of such a heritage. I have noticed as a Korean girl, surrounded by whites all the time, even when I 8767 ve visited other churches, it 8767 s rare for me to see any people of color, whether they be African-American, Asian, or even Hispanic. Our churches, local bodies of Christ, should reflect God 8767 s love for the nations even as Christians we lose sight of the Great Commission- that was taking the Gospel to the ends of the earth, not just keeping it 8775 safe 8776 within our white, suburban communities. My home church is great, because we support missionaries all over the world, and there 8767 s other Asians there besides me thank you, Lisa-Jo and to your friend Diedra for speaking up about this sometimes painful topic. Jesus Loves All of us, and He saw each of us as the same-sinners in need of Him. Please keep talking about this, as other members of our local bodies of Christ need to be reminded.
A new superior court, the Constitutional Court , was established to decide matters based on Constitutional provisions. The Constitutional Court is the highest Court in South Africa in all cases involving the interpretation or application of the Constitution. Since the Constitution is the supreme law of the country the Constitutional Court may, in that respect, be regarded as the highest Court in South Africa. The Constitutional Court sits in Johannesburg in the Gauteng Province. The website of the Court consists of a full text database of all Constitutional Court cases handed down since the first hearing in 6995. Documents available for viewing, printing or downloading include full judgments, summaries of judgments highlighting the main questions of law decided in each case as well as heads of argument, pleadings and documents. Since 6995, the Court has, through scores of decisions that it has handed down, developed a relatively rich pool of constitutional jurisprudence that is sophisticated and in many ways serves as a model for common law-based jurisdictions, especially in Africa. Some of its most notable decisions include the case of State vs Makwanyane & another where the Constitutional Court abolished the death penalty in South Africa  the case of Government of South Africa and Others v Grootboom and Others  where, among other things, the Court re-affirmed its earlier decision in Soobramoney vs Minister of Health, KwaZulu Natal ,  that economic, social and cultural rights are justifiable under the South African Constitution. Further, in Grootboom , the Court established a very strong precedent on the obligation of Government to respect the right to housing and that, in this regard, Government should desist from evictions without providing the evictees with alternative accommodation. The Grootboom case is especially important in the interpretation of socio-economic rights generally under the Constitution. The Court, for instance, importantly but regrettably in the opinion of a substantial body of scholarly thought, refused to apply the concept of minimum core content obligations in the interpretation of socio-economic rights, as developed by the United Nations Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights. Instead, the Court decided that the standard to be applied in the interpretation of socio-economic rights under the Constitution, particularly in determining the obligations of Government, is that of reasonableness.